The Art Of Teaching Sympathy: Empowering Teenagers To Understand And Support Others

In a world that often feels disconnected and divided, teaching sympathy to teenagers becomes essential. Sympathy goes beyond empathy, as it involves not only understanding others’ emotions but also actively showing compassion and support. Through the expertise and experience of a parent, Anna, this article aims to explore the significance of teaching sympathy to teenagers and provide practical insights on how to nurture this important quality.

How does sympathy differ from empathy? While empathy allows individuals to feel and understand the emotions of others, sympathy takes it a step further by prompting individuals to extend their support and kindness. By exploring this distinction, we can better understand the transformative power of sympathy.

Why should we focus on teaching sympathy in teenagers? Adolescence is a crucial period for personal growth and character development. By instilling sympathy in teenagers, we not only cultivate a more compassionate and caring society but also empower young individuals to make a positive impact on the world.

This article will guide parents, educators, and mentors in building a strong foundation for sympathy, developing empathetic communication skills, encouraging acts of service and support, and nurturing the power of teenagers as role models. By teaching sympathy, we can create a ripple effect of kindness, understanding, and generosity that has the potential to change the world.


Key takeaways:

  • Sympathy versus empathy: Sympathy involves understanding and supporting others emotionally, while empathy focuses on sharing and experiencing emotions. Teaching teenagers sympathy can help them develop a deeper sense of compassion and connection with others.
  • The importance of teaching sympathy to teenagers: By cultivating sympathy in teenagers, we encourage them to become more caring, understanding, and supportive individuals. This empowers them to contribute positively to their communities and create a more compassionate society.
  • Nurturing sympathy through example: Role models play a crucial role in nurturing sympathy in teenagers. By demonstrating sympathy in everyday actions, modeling forgiveness and tolerance, and encouraging self-reflection, role models can inspire and guide teenagers to develop empathetic and supportive behaviors.

The Art of Teaching Sympathy: Empowering Teenagers to Understand and Support Others

Empowering teenagers to understand and support others is an art worth exploring. In this section, we’ll dive into the art of teaching sympathy and its profound impact on adolescents. From cultivating altruism and compassion to fostering gratitude and forgiveness, we’ll unravel the various facets of this invaluable skill. With a focus on mindful living, non-judgmental awareness, and sincere philanthropy, we’ll equip teenagers with the tools to navigate the complexities of human emotions, promote empathy, and create a more compassionate and understanding world.

Teaching sympathy to teenagers is crucial for fostering a compassionate and understanding society.

  • Non-judgmental Altruism: Encourage acts of kindness and selflessness to promote empathy towards others.
  • Non-judgmental Gratitude: Teach teenagers to appreciate the blessings in their lives and express gratitude towards others.
  • Non-judgmental Forgiveness: Help students understand the power of forgiveness and how it can lead to healing and reconciliation.
  • Non-judgmental Tolerance: Promote acceptance of diversity and encourage open-mindedness to foster a more inclusive society.
  • Non-judgmental Philanthropy: Engage teenagers in charitable activities to instill a sense of compassion and social responsibility.
  • Non-judgmental Mindful living: Teach the importance of being present and aware of one’s thoughts, feelings, and actions.
  • Non-judgmental Respect: Emphasize the value of treating others with kindness, dignity, and respect.
  • Non-judgmental Understanding: Help teenagers develop the ability to empathize and understand the perspectives of others.

Author: Anna

Anna, the author, wrote the article “The Art of Teaching Sympathy: Empowering Teenagers to Understand and Support Others.” This insightful piece delves into the significance of teaching sympathy to young individuals while offering practical strategies to cultivate inner qualities.

Anna highlights the importance of developing empathetic communication skills, extending sympathy to others, and nurturing sympathy through positive role models. The article also emphasizes the immense power of teenagers to make a positive difference by inspiring acts of kindness, creating a culture of compassion, building connected communities, and spreading the ripple effect of sympathy. Through her writing, Anna encourages teenagers to understand and support others, promoting empathy, altruism, and mindful living.

The Importance of Teaching Sympathy to Teenagers

Teaching sympathy to teenagers is of utmost importance for developing their emotional intelligence and fostering inclusive and supportive communities. Understanding and incorporating the keywords of “The Importance of Teaching Sympathy to Teenagers” naturally, it helps them grasp and share others’ feelings, while also recognizing different perspectives and responding with empathy and kindness.

By imparting this vital skill, teenagers can effectively navigate conflicts and nurture stronger relationships, ultimately leading to improved mental health and well-being. Both educators and parents play a pivotal role in teaching sympathy through open dialogue, role-playing, and modeling empathetic behaviors.

Moreover, incorporating empathy-building activities and literature into curricula serves to enhance teenagers’ ability to connect with others and contribute to the formation of a more compassionate society.

How Does Sympathy Differ from Empathy?

Sympathy and empathy are closely related, but they have distinct differences. “How Does Sympathy Differ from Empathy?” Sympathy is the ability to understand and feel compassion for someone else’s emotions or experiences, while empathy goes a step further by truly feeling and sharing those emotions.

Sympathy is more about acknowledging and offering support, while empathy involves deeply connecting with another person’s feelings. It is important to teach teenagers the difference between sympathy and empathy, as both are valuable in building strong relationships and understanding others. By fostering both sympathy and empathy, teenagers can develop the skills to provide meaningful support and make a positive impact on others’ lives.

Why Should We Focus on Teaching Sympathy in Teenagers?

Teaching sympathy in teenagers is crucial for their personal growth, emotional well-being, and creating a compassionate society. By focusing on teaching sympathy, we equip teenagers with the tools to navigate conflicts, communicate effectively, and engage in acts of kindness and service.

Teaching Sympathy in Teenagers

This fosters a culture of empathy, builds connected communities, and encourages teenagers to make a positive difference in the world. Ultimately, teaching sympathy in teenagers helps shape them into compassionate individuals who can understand and support others.

Building the Foundation: Cultivating Inner Qualities

Building the foundation for cultivating inner qualities sets the stage for empowering teenagers to understand and support others. Discover the power of cultivating compassion and empathy, developing emotional intelligence, practicing self-awareness and mindfulness, and nurturing kindness and generosity.

These essential aspects form the bedrock upon which teenagers can thrive as empathetic individuals, creating a ripple effect of positive change in their communities. Let’s delve into each of these sub-sections and unlock the potential for building a more compassionate and supportive world.

1. Cultivating Compassion and Empathy

By fostering compassion and empathy in teenagers, we can greatly contribute to their emotional and social development. It is crucial to incorporate these qualities into their lives in the following ways:

  1. Lead by example: Demonstrate empathy and compassion through your own actions and interactions.
  2. Promote perspective-taking: Encourage teenagers to consider the feelings and experiences of others.
  3. Encourage kindness: Emphasize the importance of being kind to others, even when faced with challenging situations.
  4. Practice active listening: Teach teenagers the value of listening attentively and showing genuine interest in the stories of others.

Through the cultivation of compassion and empathy, teenagers have the opportunity to become more caring, understanding, and supportive individuals in their communities.

2. Developing Emotional Intelligence

Developing emotional intelligence is crucial when teaching sympathy to teenagers. Encourage them to:

1. Recognize and label their emotions accurately
2. Practice empathy by putting themselves in others’ shoes
3. Manage their emotions effectively through techniques like deep breathing or journaling
4. Develop self-awareness by reflecting on their emotions and behaviors
5. Build healthy relationships by understanding and regulating their emotions

By focusing on emotional intelligence, teenagers can better understand and connect with others, fostering a sense of sympathy and compassion.

3. Practicing Self-Awareness and Mindfulness

Practicing self-awareness and mindfulness is crucial for teenagers to develop empathy and sympathy towards others. It involves being present in the moment, acknowledging one’s own emotions, and understanding how they may affect others.

Teenagers can cultivate self-awareness by engaging in activities that promote introspection, such as journaling, meditating, or other mindfulness practices like deep breathing or body scans. These practices help teenagers stay grounded and empathetic in challenging situations.

By incorporating self-awareness and mindfulness into their lives, teenagers can gain a better understanding of their own emotions and connect more deeply with the experiences of others. This, in turn, enables them to offer genuine support and sympathy to those around them.

4. Nurturing Kindness and Generosity

Nurturing kindness and generosity in teenagers is crucial for their personal growth and the advancement of society. It is important to foster acts of kindness through various means such as:

  • Engaging in volunteering: Encourage teenagers to participate in community service in order to cultivate empathy and foster a sense of social responsibility.
  • Promoting random acts of kindness: Motivate teenagers to perform small and thoughtful acts of kindness, like assisting a classmate in need or making a donation to a charity.
  • Cultivating inclusive behavior: Educate teenagers about the importance of embracing diversity and treating everyone with respect and kindness.
  • Encouraging resource sharing: Inspire teenagers to donate their time, skills, or possessions to individuals who are in need.

A true story illustrates how Sarah noticed a classmate who was struggling with bullying and initiated a kindness campaign by leaving positive notes for everyone. Over time, these acts of kindness multiplied and created a more supportive and compassionate school environment.

Developing Empathetic Communication Skills

Developing empathetic communication skills is crucial in empowering teenagers to understand and support others. In this dynamic section, we’ll explore key strategies that can enhance their ability to connect on a deeper level.

From practicing active listening to fostering non-judgmental and respectful mindsets, we’ll delve into the importance of thoughtful and considerate speech. We’ll uncover the benefits of cultivating effective conflict resolution techniques. Join us on this journey of nurturing empathy and creating a more compassionate world.

1. Practicing Active Listening

  1. One important skill for teenagers to develop empathy and understanding towards others is practicing active listening.
  2. To practice active listening, it is important to focus on the speaker and pay full attention, while maintaining eye contact and avoiding distractions.
  3. Another aspect of active listening is not interrupting the speaker and allowing them to express themselves fully without interjecting your own thoughts.
  4. Showing interest and empathy is crucial, and you can do this by responding with non-verbal cues like nodding and smiling, which indicate that you are engaged and understanding.
  5. Encouraging the speaker to share more is also a key part of active listening. This can be done through asking open-ended questions that require more than a simple yes or no answer.
  6. To ensure that you understood correctly and to show that you genuinely care, it is helpful to reflect and paraphrase what the speaker has said. This lets them know that you are actively listening.

By practicing active listening, teenagers can develop stronger connections, build trust, and create a more compassionate and supportive environment.

2. Fostering Non-judgmental and Respectful Mindsets

Fostering non-judgmental and respectful mindsets in teenagers is crucial for building a society that values compassion and inclusivity. In order to cultivate empathy and understanding, it is important to teach teenagers to suspend judgment and embrace diversity.

Non-judgmental and Respectful Mindsets

One effective approach is to expose them to different perspectives and cultures, encouraging open-mindedness and acceptance. By engaging them in discussions that promote respectful dialogue and challenging their biases, we can empower teenagers to develop non-judgmental behavior.

It is also significant to model this behavior ourselves and emphasize the importance of treating all individuals with dignity and respect. By doing so, we enable teenagers to contribute to the creation of a more tolerant and harmonious world.

Pro-tip: Another way to foster empathy is by encouraging teenagers to actively seek out diverse experiences and engage with individuals who have different backgrounds and viewpoints. This will expand their understanding and promote empathy towards others.

3. Encouraging Thoughtful and Considerate Speech

Encouraging thoughtful and considerate speech among teenagers is crucial for nurturing empathy and comprehension in their interactions with others. It is vital to provide opportunities for open dialogue and active listening as this can aid in the development of communication skills that are both respectful and empathetic.

Teaching them to ponder before speaking, consider the impact of their words, and carefully choose their language can significantly contribute to the creation of a harmonious and supportive environment. This approach enables teenagers to learn how to express their thoughts and opinions in a manner that is considerate of others’ feelings, thus promoting healthier relationships and effective conflict resolution.

4. Cultivating Effective Conflict Resolution

Cultivating effective conflict resolution skills in teenagers is crucial for promoting healthy relationships and fostering a harmonious community. Here are some steps to assist teenagers in developing these skills:

  1. Encourage active listening to comprehensively understand different perspectives.
  2. Foster non-judgmental and respectful mindsets to establish a safe space for open communication.
  3. Emphasize thoughtful and considerate speech to express concerns without causing harm.
  4. Cultivate effective conflict resolution techniques, such as negotiation and compromise.

Did you know that teaching conflict resolution not only fosters better relationships but also enhances problem-solving abilities?

Extending Sympathy to Others: Acts of Service and Support

In this section, we’re diving into the realm of extending sympathy to others through acts of service and support. We’ll explore different avenues such as engaging in philanthropic deeds, providing emotional support, practicing humble leadership, and promoting positive community engagement.

Get ready to discover how these various approaches can empower teenagers to understand, connect with, and uplift those around them with genuine empathy and kindness. Let’s dig in and unlock the transformative power of extending sympathy to others!

1. Engaging in Philanthropic Deeds

Engaging in philanthropic deeds is an essential way for teenagers to foster empathy and compassion towards others, while simultaneously creating a positive impact on their communities.

  • Teenagers can volunteer at a local charity or non-profit organization dedicated to a cause they deeply care about.
  • They can take part in organizing or participating in fundraising events, aiming to collect funds for a charitable organization or support a specific cause.
  • Donating goods, like clothing or canned food, to local shelters or food banks is another valuable way to contribute to the community.
  • Teenagers can also play a mentoring role for younger children or provide tutoring services to those who require assistance.
  • Participating in community service projects, such as cleaning up a local park or organizing a neighborhood clean-up day, is another impactful way to make a difference.

By engaging in philanthropic deeds, teenagers not only foster empathy and compassion, but they also grasp the significance of giving back to their community and creating a positive influence on the lives of others.

2. Providing Emotional Support

Providing emotional support is essential for teenagers’ overall well-being and development. Here are some ways to effectively offer this support:

1. Encourage open communication: Establish a safe and non-judgmental space where teenagers can freely express their feelings and concerns.

2. Validate their emotions: Recognize and accept their emotions as legitimate and assist them in comprehending and processing their feelings.

3. Offer guidance and advice: Share your own experiences and offer advice, or seek assistance from professionals if necessary.

4. Be a good listener: Practice active listening and demonstrate empathy to truly understand their perspective.

5. Provide reassurance: Assure teenagers that they are loved and supported, consistently reinforcing this message.

6. Encourage self-care: Promote self-care activities such as exercise, hobbies, and relaxation techniques to help manage stress and enhance emotional well-being.

3. Practicing Humble Leadership

Practicing Humble Leadership plays a crucial role in teaching teenagers sympathy, as it involves setting an example and fostering humility, while valuing the perspectives and needs of others. Encouraging teamwork, collaboration, and respect for diversity, humble leaders promote a culture of empathy and understanding that inspires teenagers to be compassionate and supportive towards others.

By instilling the significance of humble leadership, we can empower teenagers to make a positive difference in their communities and contribute to a more compassionate and interconnected society. Let’s encourage teenagers to embrace humble leadership and cultivate empathy for a better future.

4. Promoting Positive Community Engagement

Promoting positive community engagement among teenagers is crucial for fostering empathy and building stronger, more connected communities. Here are some ways to encourage teenagers to actively engage in their communities:

  1. Get involved in local volunteer opportunities, such as food drives or community clean-ups.
  2. Join clubs or organizations focused on community service or social justice.
  3. Participate in neighborhood events, like block parties or fundraisers, to connect with others.
  4. Create projects that address community needs, like starting a community garden or organizing a clothing drive.

By actively promoting positive community engagement, teenagers can learn the importance of giving back and develop a sense of responsibility towards their communities. Together, they can make a significant difference.

The Role of Role Models: Nurturing Sympathy Through Example

As we explore the role of role models in nurturing sympathy, get ready to uncover the power of leading by example. From demonstrating sympathy in everyday actions to modeling forgiveness and tolerance, we’ll delve into the various ways role models can inspire empathy.

We’ll discover how encouraging self-reflection and introspection, along with promoting spiritual growth and inner peace, play a vital role in shaping compassionate individuals. Prepare to be inspired by the profound impact of role models on fostering sympathy!

1. Demonstrating Sympathy in Everyday Actions

Demonstrating sympathy in everyday actions is an important aspect of teaching empathy and compassion to teenagers. To incorporate sympathy in daily life, follow these steps:

  • Show genuine interest in others’ well-being by asking how they are doing and actively listening to their responses.
  • Offer a helping hand to those in need, whether it’s a classmate struggling with homework or a friend going through a difficult time.
  • Practice acts of kindness, such as holding the door for someone, offering a smile, or giving compliments.
  • Practice forgiveness and understanding, recognizing that everyone makes mistakes and deserves a second chance.

Pro-tip: By consistently demonstrating sympathy in everyday actions, teenagers can create a positive impact on the lives of others and foster a more compassionate and supportive community.

2. Modeling Forgiveness and Tolerance

Modeling forgiveness and tolerance is of utmost importance when teaching teenagers how to empathize and support others. By naturally showcasing forgiving attitudes and accepting different perspectives, adults can serve as inspirations for teenagers to follow suit.

Young female friends looking through showcase

Role models can effectively highlight the significance of forgiveness and tolerance through their actions, such as peacefully resolving conflicts and treating others with kindness. This approach aids teenagers in comprehending the value of empathy and motivates them to nurture these qualities within themselves.

By fostering forgiveness and tolerance, adults empower teenagers to actively contribute in creating a society that is more compassionate and understanding.

An excellent historical example that exemplifies the power of forgiveness and tolerance is Nelson Mandela’s influential role in South Africa’s transition from apartheid to democracy. Despite enduring decades of imprisonment and mistreatment, Mandela embraced forgiveness and advocated for unity, thereby effectively inspiring the nation to progress and heal.

3. Encouraging Self-Reflection and Introspection

Encouraging self-reflection and introspection is crucial in teaching sympathy to teenagers. By prompting them to examine their own thoughts, feelings, and actions, they can develop a deeper understanding of themselves and others. This involves encouraging regular periods of introspection, such as journaling or meditation, to help teenagers become more self-aware and empathetic.

Through self-reflection, teenagers can identify their biases, prejudices, and negative patterns of thinking, enabling them to challenge and change them. By cultivating self-reflection and introspection, teenagers can develop a strong foundation for empathy and compassion, leading to more meaningful connections and support for others.

A group of teenagers participated in an activity focused on encouraging self-reflection and introspection, where they were asked to write about a time when they felt misunderstood. This exercise aimed to promote self-awareness and empathy.

Through this introspective practice, they gained a greater appreciation for the struggles of their peers and developed a stronger sense of empathy. This self-reflection helped them realize the importance of taking the time to understand others before making judgments, leading to more supportive and inclusive interactions within their community.

4. Promoting Spiritual Growth and Inner Peace

Promoting spiritual growth and inner peace plays a crucial role when teaching teenagers to cultivate sympathy. By providing opportunities for mindfulness practices and meditation, we can encourage self-reflection and introspection.

It is important to teach them the significance of finding peace within themselves before extending it to others. We should also foster a sense of connection to something greater by encouraging teenagers to explore their own spiritual beliefs and values. Through promoting spiritual growth and inner peace, teenagers can develop a deeper understanding of themselves and others, which in turn leads to greater empathy and compassion.

This, in turn, promotes a sense of harmony and well-being, enabling them to gracefully navigate challenges and support others in their journey towards understanding and peace.

Changing the World: The Power of Teenagers in Making a Difference

Teenagers possess a remarkable power to make a difference and change the world. In this section, we will uncover the incredible potential they hold in creating a lasting impact on society. From inspiring acts of kindness and service to building stronger, connected communities, we will explore how teenagers can ignite the flame of compassion and understanding. By spreading the ripple effect of sympathy, they have the ability to shape a more empathetic world for all.

1. Inspiring Acts of Kindness and Service

Inspiring acts of kindness and service are crucial in fostering empathy and compassion in teenagers. By participating in acts of kindness, teenagers gain an understanding of the significance and influence of selflessness and giving back to their communities. There are various methods to encourage acts of kindness and service, including:

  • Engaging in volunteer work at local charities or non-profit organizations.
  • Taking part in community clean-up drives or environmental initiatives.
  • Becoming mentors and tutors for younger students.
  • Initiating fundraisers or donation drives for causes they are passionate about.

These actions not only benefit others but also nurture a sense of gratitude, modesty, and social responsibility in teenagers, empowering them to create a positive impact in the world.

2. Creating a Culture of Compassion and Understanding

Creating a culture of compassion and understanding among teenagers is absolutely essential for establishing a harmonious society. This crucial objective can be accomplished through a variety of effective approaches that should not be overlooked:

1. Role models: In order to inspire empathetic behavior and instill values, it is imperative to provide teenagers with positive examples to emulate.

2. Empathetic communication: By promoting active listening, cultivating a non-judgmental mindset, and encouraging considerate speech, we can greatly contribute to fostering understanding.

3. Acts of service: Engaging in philanthropic deeds and offering emotional support are powerful methods to educate teenagers about the significance of compassion.

4. Community engagement: Encouraging positive community involvement is instrumental in helping teenagers develop empathic attitudes towards others.

By implementing these strategies, we can empower teenagers to become influential agents of change, ultimately leading to the creation of a society that is deeply rooted in compassion and understanding.

Some suggestions to effectively implement these tactics include educating teenagers about real-world issues, encouraging volunteer work, organizing empathy workshops, and undertaking community service projects.

3. Building Stronger, Connected Communities

Building stronger, connected communities is vital for nurturing empathy and support among teenagers. Here are some methods to achieve this:

The Art Of Teaching Sympathy: Empowering Teenagers To Understand And Support Others is a great resource that provides insights on how to foster personal responsibility and guide teens towards empathy. You can find more information on this topic here.

  1. Promoting collaboration: Encourage teamwork and cooperation among teenagers to establish relationships and foster a sense of community within connected communities.
  2. Creating inclusive spaces: Cultivate an environment that embraces and respects everyone, irrespective of their background or differences, thereby fostering a sense of community within connected communities.
  3. Organizing community events: Strategize activities that unite people, promoting connections and a sense of belonging within connected communities.
  4. Fostering communication: Advocate for open and honest dialogue to address conflicts, comprehend diverse perspectives, and forge stronger connections within connected communities.

4. Spreading the Ripple Effect of Sympathy

Spreading the ripple effect of sympathy is crucial in fostering a compassionate society among teenagers. It entails motivating them to go beyond themselves and inspire others with acts of kindness. By exemplifying forgiveness, tolerance, and self-reflection, teenagers can effectively impact their peers and cultivate a culture of empathy.

Moreover, engaging in philanthropy and providing emotional support are additional means to propagate the ripple effect of sympathy. Ultimately, this collective endeavor can generate a ripple effect, fostering stronger and more interconnected communities that prioritize understanding and support for others.


Some Facts About The Art Of Teaching Sympathy: Empowering Teenagers To Understand And Support Others:

  • ✅ Empathy and compassion are essential qualities to cultivate in teenagers. (Source:
  • ✅ The ability to understand and share the feelings of others creates a strong foundation for supporting and connecting with others. (Source:
  • ✅ Teaching teenagers to be sympathetic helps them develop valuable life skills such as active listening and problem-solving. (Source:
  • ✅ The Art of teaching sympathy equips teenagers with the ability to build meaningful relationships and create a supportive community. (Source:
  • ✅ By teaching teenagers to understand and support others, we empower them to become effective leaders in their own lives and communities. (Source:

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the importance of teaching personal responsibility to teenagers?

Teaching personal responsibility is essential for nurturing capable and confident teenagers. It helps them understand their values, create a personal mission statement, and set goals, which are key elements of effective leadership.

How can parents guide their teens in understanding their core beliefs and values?

Parents can encourage introspection in their teens by engaging in open discussions about their core beliefs and what matters to them. This self-awareness enables them to create a personal mission statement, which acts as a compass guiding them towards their desired path and goals.

What is the SMART goal method and how can it be helpful in goal setting for teens?

The SMART goal method emphasizes specificity, measurability, attainability, realism, and time specificity. Parents can engage in open discussions with their teens about setting both short-term and long-term goals using this method, teaching them that success comes from incremental progress and consistent effort.

Why is integrity an important aspect of personal responsibility?

Integrity is crucial as it helps teens understand the importance of taking responsibility for their actions and learning from their mistakes. Parents should model this behavior themselves to reinforce the value of integrity and demonstrate the perseverance and commitment required to achieve goals.

How can empathy and compassion play a role in teaching teenagers to understand and support others?

Empathy, the ability to understand and share the feelings of others, and compassion, sympathetic pity and concern for others’ sufferings, can be fostered in teenagers. By incorporating these concepts in what is being taught and encouraging acts of kindness and support, teenagers can learn to be empathetic and compassionate individuals.

What are some tips for helping teenagers build empathy in an after-school setting?

In an after-school setting, it is important to promote a positive emotional environment and provide opportunities for acting out emotions together. Incorporating activities like compassion circles, art-based interventions, and discussions about shared experiences can help teenagers develop empathy and build deeper relationships.

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